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| Last Updated:: 10/02/2016

Soil Resource


       Based on the report of the Soil Survey Wing of Soil and Water Conservation, Nagaland ,the soil of Nagaland belongs to 4 orders, 7 sub-orders, 10 great groups, 14 sub groups and 72 soil families. The 4 orders of soil found in Nagaland are (i) Alfisols (ii) Entisols (iii) Inceptisols and (iv) Ultisols. Inceptisols dominate the soils of the State with 66% followed by Ultisols 23.8%, Entisols 7.3% and Alfisols 2.9% of the total 16.6 million Ha. of the State geographical area.

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       Alfisols are base-rich mineral soils of sub-humid and humid region. They have light coloured surface horizon over a clay enriched sub –surface horizon that is rich in exchangeable cations with base saturation of more than 35%. This type of soil order is found on the western flank of the State bordering Assam. They are deep and well drained of fine to fine loamy texture. Common families of Alfisols which have been identified in Nagaland are :

  1. Fine Typic Kanhapludalfs
  2. Fine Loamy Typic Paleudalfs

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       They are recently developed, mineral soils with no diagnostic horizon. This is because either of limiting time available for development or because of exceedingly unfavourable conditions. This soil order is found in the Western and North Western part of the State on the low hill slope and narrow river valleys. They are moderately to deep, well drained, fine to fine loamy textured soils. Families which have been identified under this orders are :-

  1. Fine-loamy typic Udifluvents
  2. Fine-loamy typic Udorthents
  3. Coarse-loamy typic Udorthents
  4. Fine-loamy Lithic Udorthents
  5. Coarse loamy Lithic Udorthents

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       This soil order represents beginning stage of soil formation which belong to that of Entisols but still short of the degree of development found in Alfisols. They may have some accumulation of clay in the sub-surface horizon, limiting in depth, organic matter content, and base saturation. This soil dominates the entire State having fine loamy, fine clay, clay loam etc. The identified families under this order are:

  1. Fine- loamy Umbric Dystrochrepts
  2. Fine loamy typic Dystrochrepts
  3. Fine Umbric Dystrochrepts
  4. Loamy , skeletal Umbric Dystrochrepts
  5. Fine typic Dystrochrepts
  6. Loamy-skeletal typic Dystrochrepts
  7. Clayey-skeletal Umbric Dystrochrepts
  8. Loamy-skeletal Pachic Haplumbrepts
  9. Fine Pachic Haplumbrepts
  10. Fine-loamy typic Haplumbrepts
  11. Clayey-skeletal Pachic Haplumbrepts
  12. Fine loamy Pachic Haplumbrepts
  13. Fine-loamy Dystric Eutrochrepts
  14. Coarse loamy typic Dystrocrepts
  15. Loamy skeletal typic Dystrocrepts
  16. Loamy skeletal Dystric Eutrocrepts

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       The Ultisols are similar with Alfisols, except for having low base saturation on the exchange complex due to advance stage at weathering. These are base-poor mineral soils of humid region developed under high rainfall and forest vegetation. They are characterized by low, less than 35% base saturation and clay enriched sub-surface horizon. This soil is sparely scattered in all parts of the State having fine loam, clay loam and clayey texture. Well to excessively drained with moderate to deep soils. The families under this order which have been identified so far are :

  • Fine Humic Hapludults
  • Fine Typic Paleudults
  • Fine Typic Haplohumults
  • Fine Loamy Typic Hapludults

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